عنوان مقاله [English]
In this study, natural colorants of hawthorn fruit, Crataegus elbursensis were extracted using ultrasonic energy. The effect of extraction variables such as solvent type, time, temperature, pH, and crude dye concentration was optimized through one-factor at a time method. Optimum extraction conditions of dye concentration 10 g/L, ethanol/water ratio of 4/1 V/V, temperature 50 ˚C, time 30 minutes, and pH 4 were obtained. Moreover, comparison of extraction data obtained by two conventional and ultrasonic extraction methods demonstrated that using ultrasound, extraction time and temperature were reduced and the amount of natural dye extracted was enhanced.